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HOWTO: Move raspberry disk storage from flash to USB stick
08-08-2014, 03:27 AM, (This post was last modified: 08-16-2014, 03:46 AM by digdas.)
#1
HOWTO: Move raspberry disk storage from flash to USB stick
Source: <a href="http://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=29&t=44177" title="found here">http://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=29&t=44177</a>

The SD-card on the raspberry is not quite robust. To avoid problems with it, it is possible to move the filesystem to a USB drive. Here are the instructions I used to do this.

Needed:
- SD card (4GB/class 10) is sufficient
- USB stick., I use the Kingston DataTraveler Micro, as it is very small.

First install the image on the SD-card as usual

Insert the USB disk in the Raspberry.

Power-up and log in.

First step: Reformat the USB disk to
Code:
sudo fdisk /dev/sda

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 8022 MB, 8022654976 bytes
94 heads, 14 sectors/track, 11906 cylinders, total 15669248 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1              32    15669247     7834608    b  W95 FAT32

Command (m for help): d
Selected partition 1

Command (m for help): n
Partition type:
   p   primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)
   e   extended
Select (default p): p
Partition number (1-4, default 1): 1
First sector (2048-15669247, default 2048):
Using default value 2048
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (2048-15669247, default 15669247):
Using default value 15669247

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

Code:
sudo mke2fs -t ext4 -L rootfs /dev/sda1
mke2fs 1.42.5 (29-Jul-2012)
Filesystem label=rootfs
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
490560 inodes, 1958652 blocks
97932 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=2009071616
60 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8176 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632

Allocating group tables: done
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

Then: mount the partition:
Code:
sudo mkdir /mnt/sda1
sudo mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/sda1

Now you can see the disk:
Code:
df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
rootfs          1.8G  1.4G  247M  86% /
/dev/root       1.8G  1.4G  247M  86% /
devtmpfs        212M     0  212M   0% /dev
tmpfs            44M  228K   44M   1% /run
tmpfs           5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
tmpfs            88M     0   88M   0% /run/shm
/dev/mmcblk0p1   56M   19M   38M  34% /boot
/dev/sda1       7.3G  145M  6.8G   3% /mnt/sda1  ## this is the new disk

If needed: install rsync
Code:
sudo apt-get install rsync
And copy all over to the USB disk: (this will take a long time!)
Code:
sudo rsync -axv / /mnt/sda1
Next step: update the boot-parameters to use the USB-stick
Code:
sudo cp /boot/cmdline.txt /boot/cmdline.orig
sudo vi /boot/cmdline.txt

Change root= to /dev/sda1
add rootwait rootdelay=5

It should look like:
Code:
dwc_otg.lpm_enable=0 console=ttyAMA0,115200 kgdboc=ttyAMA0,115200 console=tty1 root=/dev/sda1 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline rootwait rootdelay=5
Also change fstab to have the correct disk:
Code:
proc            /proc           proc    defaults          0       0
/dev/sda1       /               ext4    defaults,noatime  0       1                  #### Add this line
/dev/mmcblk0p1  /boot           vfat    defaults          0       2
#/dev/mmcblk0p2  /               ext4    defaults,noatime  0       1             #### Comment out this line
# a swapfile is not a swap partition, so no using swapon|off from here on, use  dphys-swapfile swap[on|off]  for that

Now reboot
Code:
sudo reboot

To verify: Check with df:
Code:
$ df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
rootfs          <strong>7.4G  1.6G  5.5G  22% /                            #### Should be the size of the USB drive
/dev/root       <strong>7.4G  1.6G  5.5G  22% /                          #### Should be the size of the USB drive
devtmpfs        235M     0  235M   0% /dev
tmpfs            49M  248K   49M   1% /run
tmpfs           5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
tmpfs            98M     0   98M   0% /run/shm
/dev/mmcblk0p1   56M   19M   38M  34% /boot
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